Zurich Vista Review
Product Reviews, Saving Plans Reviews

Zurich International Life Vista Review

Zurich International Vista is the second most expensive regular savings plan in the market.

Zurich International Life Vista range of savings plans are called - ‘Vista – our simple, regular savings policy’, by Zurich. I can tell you right now, there is nothing simple about this product.

The charges are difficult to understand, and the product has very high surrender charges, even for the 5-year term.

Minimum Contributions & Investment Terms

Minimum Contributions - USD 300 per month / USD 3,600 per year

The Zurich International Life Vista Savings Plan offers the following terms - 5 years and above.

Capital Protection

The Zurich International Life Vista Savings Plan is not ‘Capital Protected’ regardless of the term selected. 

If you are looking for ‘Capital Protected’ Savings Plans, read this review - Investors Trust S&P500 Index Review.

Investment Options (Where the money can be invested)

The Zurich International Life Vista Savings Plan offers around 300 mutual funds to choose from.

The funds offered are from some of the top fund managers in the world, but all the funds offered in this savings plan are mirror funds.

Zurich International Life levies their own mirror fund charge over and above the fund manager's charges.

Charges

Expense Recoupment Charge - 4% each year of the value of the initial units (typically 18 months premiums)

Bid/Offer Spread - Nil

Policy Charge - USD 8.25 per month

Yearly Management Charge - 1% per annum - this charge is based on the policy value and will be deducted on a monthly basis.

Zurich International Life Vista savings plan offers bonuses and enhanced allocations, based on the total amount of annual premium paid.

The simplest way to understand charges is to see what you would end up with - at a certain level of monthly contribution, and assumed growth rate, and net of all product charges. See the section below.

What you would end up with if:

You save - USD 1,000 per month, for 5 years,

You paid - USD 60,000 in 5 years,

You get at the end of the term - USD 67,577 with an assumed growth rate of 8% (net of charges).

What an actual quote looks like:

Click on the images below to magnify them. 

Zurich Vista Quote
Zurich Vista Quote

Jurisdiction - (Where your money is held)

Zurich International Life Limited provides life assurance, investment and protection products and is authorised by the Isle of Man Financial Services Authority.

Protection issues

For life assurance companies, the Isle of Man's Life Assurance (Compensation of Policyholders) Regulations 1991 ensure that, in the event of a life assurance company being unable to meet its liabilities to its policyholders, and subject to the Regulations, the scheme manager shall pay to the policyholder out of the Policyholders' Compensation Fund a sum equal to 90% of the amount of any liability of the insurer under the contract.

The Island's scheme operates globally, providing protection to policyholders no matter where they reside.

The scheme would be funded by a levy on the funds of the other life assurance companies.

The Financial Services Ombudsman

The role of the Authority does not extend to acting as arbitrator for individual policyholder complaints. However, it should be noted that the Isle of Man has a Financial Services Ombudsman scheme which has a broader remit. This service is free and designed to handle consumer disputes in the areas of Insurance, Banking, Investment and Pensions from consumers of Isle of Man regulated businesses from around the World.

To pursue a complaint, the complainant must first have formally taken the matter up with the institution concerned, and must contact the Ombudsman within 6 years of the act or omission taking place, or within 2 years of the date at which the act or omission came to the notice of the complainant.

Complaints where the act or omission occurred prior to April 20th 1999 do not fall under the scheme.

The scheme's adjudicator has the power to impose directions to remedy the position, and can make monetary awards of up to £100,000 in respect of an act or omission which occurred before 1st April 2012 or £150,000 if that act or omission occurrred on or after 1st April 2012.

CONCLUSION

Would I buy this savings plan myself, and recommend to others?
No

Disclaimer: This article is assumed to be accurate at the time of publishing, and represents the personal opinion of the author. If you wish to correct/contest any of the following, please do so in the comments below. I am open to correcting errors if any.

All opinions are welcome.

​Read More
Generali Vision Review
Product Reviews, Saving Plans Reviews

Generali Vision Review

Generali Vision is currently the most expensive regular savings plan in the market.

Latest Update (January 2019) : Assicurazioni Generali UAE, is not accepting anymore business from clients in the U.A.E

The Generali Vision UAE savings plan is a unit-linked, regular premium, whole of life assurance plan. It is designed for medium to long-term regular saving. To maximise its potential you should pay your premiums for the entire premium payment term selected.

Vision UAE is brought to you by Assicurazioni Generali S.p.A. (Generali) in the UAE. Generali is registered under UAE Federal Law No. 6 of 2007 and regulated by the Insurance Authority.

Generali Vision used to be one of the cheapest 5-year savings plans in the market. Now, the new version has increased charges, and it becomes an expensive savings plan in the market.

Minimum Contributions & Investment Terms

Minimum Contributions - USD 300 per month / USD 3,600 per year (for terms of 10 years and longer), and USD 750 per month, for 5 year terms.

The Vision Savings Plan offers the following terms - 5 years and above.

Capital Protection

The Vision Savings Plan is not ‘Capital Protected’ regardless of the term selected. 

If you are looking for ‘Capital Protected’ Savings Plans, read this review - Investors Trust S&P500 Index Review.

Investment Options (Where the money can be invested)

The Vision Savings Plan offers around 250 odd mutual funds to choose from.

These funds are from some of the top fund managers in the world. All the funds offered in this savings plan are direct funds (cheaper than mirror funds).

Charges

Administration Fee - Where a Premium Payment Term of less than ten years is selected, administration fee is 2.75% p.a. of total premiums due till year five, and 2% p.a. of total premiums due till year 10.

Bid/Offer Spread - 0 to 2% (difference between the buying and selling price of funds)

Policy Charge - USD 4.5 per month

Yearly Management Charge - 0.5 to 3% per annum - this charge is based on the policy value and will be deducted on a monthly basis.

Generali Vision savings plan offers bonuses enhanced allocation on each premium, based on the total amount of annual premium paid.

The simplest way to understand charges is to see what you would end up with - at a certain level of monthly contribution, and assumed growth rate, and net of all product charges. See the section below.

What you would end up with if:

You save - USD 1,000 per month, for 5 years,

You paid - USD 60,000 in 5 years,

You get at the end of the term - USD 64,451 with an assumed growth rate of 8% (net of charges)

What an actual quote looks like:

Click on the images below to magnify them. 

Generali Vision Quote
Generali Vision Quote

Jurisdiction - (Where your money is held)

Generali International is based in Guernsey in the Channel Islands, one of the most respected and well regulated international finance centres in the worldd

The Guernsey jurisdiction protects investors by guarantee at least 90% of the liabilities of insurance companies in Guernsey should they go bankrupt.

CONCLUSION

Would I buy this savings plan myself, and recommend to others?
No

Disclaimer: This article is assumed to be accurate at the time of publishing, and represents the personal opinion of the author. If you wish to correct/contest any of the following, please do so in the comments below. I am open to correcting errors if any.

All opinions are welcome.

​Read More
Metlife Wealthbuilder Review
Product Reviews, Saving Plans Reviews

Metlife Wealth Builder Review

Metlife Wealth Builder is the third most expensive regular savings plan in the market.

The Metlife Wealth Builder savings plan is similar to other savings plan offerings by life insurance companies with investment options of mutual funds and a couple of ETFs.

Minimum Contributions & Investment Terms

Minimum Contributions - USD 600 per month / USD 7,200 per year

The Metlife Wealth Builder offers the following terms - 5 years to 25 years.

Capital Protection

The Metlife Wealth Builder Savings Plan is not ‘Capital Protected’ regardless of the term selected. 

If you are looking for ‘Capital Protected’ Savings Plans, read this review - Investors Trust S&P500 Index Review.

Investment Options (Where the money can be invested)

The Metlife Wealth Builder Savings Plan offers around 140 mutual funds to choose from.

The funds offered are from some of the top fund managers in the world, but only a couple of low-cost ETFs or index funds are offered.

Some of the mutual funds offered have annual charges as high as 2.5% per annum.

Charges

Policy Administration Charge - 3.5% of Account Value of Capital Account 

Management and Expense Charge 
0-30 months - 1.44% p.a.
31-60 months - 1.20% p.a.

Premium Charge - 5% p.a. of target premiums

The Metlife Wealth Builder savings plan offers bonuses and enhanced allocations, based on the total amount of annual premium paid. 

The simplest way to understand charges is to see what you would end up with - at a certain level of monthly contribution, and assumed growth rate, and net of all product charges. See the section below.

What you would end up with if:

You save - USD 1,000 per month, for 5 years,

You paid - USD 60,000 in 5 years,

You get at the end of the term - USD 68,145 with an assumed growth rate of 8% (net of charges).

What an actual quote looks like:

Click on the images below to magnify them. 

Metlife Wealth Builder Quote
Metlife Wealth Builder Quote
Metlife Wealth Builder Quote
Metlife Wealth Builder Quote
Metlife Wealth Builder Quote
Metlife Wealth Builder Quote

Jurisdiction - (Where your money is held)

Metlife UAE is a subsidiary of Metlife Inc., jurisdiction where your money is held - is the United States of America.

Here is an excerpt from the Metlife Inc. 10K form filing.

Overview

In the U.S., our life insurance companies are regulated primarily at the state level with some products and services also subject to federal regulation. In addition, MetLife, Inc. and its U.S. insurance subsidiaries are subject to regulation under the insurance holding company laws of various U.S. jurisdictions.

As a non-bank systemically important financial institution (“non-bank SIFI”), MetLife, Inc. is also subject to regulation by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve Board”) and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (collectively, with the Federal Reserve Board, the “Federal Reserve”) and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”).

Furthermore, some of MetLife’s operations, products and services are subject to consumer protection laws, securities, broker-dealer and investment adviser regulations, environmental and unclaimed property laws and regulations, and to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (“ERISA”). 

Our international insurance operations are principally regulated by insurance regulatory authorities in the jurisdictions in which they are located or operate. In addition, our investment and pension companies outside of the U.S. are subject to oversight by the relevant securities, pension and other authorities of the countries in which the companies operate.

Our non-U.S. insurance businesses are also subject to current and developing solvency regimes which impose various capital and other requirements. As a global systemically important insurer (“G-SII”), MetLife, Inc. may also become subject to additional capital requirements. See “ International Regulation.”

U.S. Regulation

Insurance Regulation

State insurance regulation generally aims at supervising and regulating insurers, with the goal of protecting policyholders and ensuring that insurance companies remain solvent. Insurance regulators have increasingly sought information about the potential impact of activities in holding company systems as a whole, and some jurisdictions have adopted laws and regulations enhancing “group-wide” supervision, as supported by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners’ (“NAIC”) Solvency Modernization Initiative. See “— NAIC” for information regarding group-wide supervision.

Each of MetLife’s insurance subsidiaries operating in the United States is licensed and regulated in each U.S. jurisdiction where it conducts insurance business. The extent of such regulation varies, but most jurisdictions have laws and regulations governing the financial aspects and business conduct of insurers. 

CONCLUSION

Would I buy this savings plan myself, and recommend to others?
No.

Disclaimer: This article is assumed to be accurate at the time of publishing, and represents the personal opinion of the author. If you wish to correct/contest any of the following, please do so in the comments below. I am open to correcting errors if any. All opinions are welcome.

​Read More
Friends Provident Premiere Advance Review
Product Reviews, Saving Plans Reviews

Friends Provident Premier Advance Review

Friends Provident Premiere Advance is the fourth most expensive regular savings plan in the market.

Friends Provident Premier Advance is a unit-linked regular payment savings plan designed to be held as a medium to long-term investment.

Friends Provident Premier Advance also has mirror funds similar to the Zurich Vista Savings Plan which add another layer of costs to the already high product charges.

While it is marginally better than Generali Vision and Zurich Vista, it is still a savings product that is more expensive.

Minimum Contributions & Investment Terms

Minimum Contributions - USD 300 per month / USD 3,600 per year

The Friends Provident Premier Advance Savings Plan offers the following terms - 5 years and above.

Capital Protection

The Friends Provident Premier Advance Savings Plan is not ‘Capital Protected’ regardless of the term selected. 

If you are looking for ‘Capital Protected’ Savings Plans, read this review - Investors Trust S&P500 Index Review.

Investment Options (Where the money can be invested)

The Friends Provident Premier Advance Savings Plan offers around 190 mutual funds and some ETFs to choose from.

The funds offered are from some of the top fund managers in the world, but all the funds offered in this savings plan are mirror funds with very high charges.

Friends Provident levies their own mirror fund charge over and above the fund manager's charges.

 Some of the mutual funds offered have annual charges as high as 2.53% per annum, over and above the mirror fund charge of 1.2%. This adds up to 3.73% per annum, over and above the product charges.

Charges

Initial Charge - An initial charge of 1.5% is taken each quarter from the initial unit holding over the term of the plan. This charge is taken by cancelling initial units on the quarterly anniversary of the plan commencement date.

Bid/Offer Spread - 7% (Difference between the buying and selling price of funds within the plan)

Policy Charge - USD 6 per month

Fund Administration Charge - 1.2% per annum - this charge is based on the policy value and will be deducted on a monthly basis.

The Friends Provident Premier Advance savings plan offers bonuses and enhanced allocations, based on the total amount of annual premium paid. 

The simplest way to understand charges is to see what you would end up with - at a certain level of monthly contribution, and assumed growth rate, and net of all product charges. See the section below.

What you would end up with if:

You save - USD 1,000 per month, for 5 years,

You paid - USD 60,000 in 5 years,

You get at the end of the term - USD 69,071 with an assumed growth rate of 8% (net of charges).

What an actual quote looks like:

Click on the images below to magnify them. 

Friends Provident Premiere Advance Quote
Friends Provident Premiere Advance Quote

Jurisdiction - (Where your money is held)

Friends Provident International Limited provides life assurance, investment and protection products and is authorised by the Isle of Man Financial Services Authority.

Protection issues

For life assurance companies, the Isle of Man's Life Assurance (Compensation of Policyholders) Regulations 1991 ensure that, in the event of a life assurance company being unable to meet its liabilities to its policyholders, and subject to the Regulations, the scheme manager shall pay to the policyholder out of the Policyholders' Compensation Fund a sum equal to 90% of the amount of any liability of the insurer under the contract.

The Island's scheme operates globally, providing protection to policyholders no matter where they reside.

The scheme would be funded by a levy on the funds of the other life assurance companies.

The Financial Services Ombudsman

The role of the Authority does not extend to acting as arbitrator for individual policyholder complaints. However, it should be noted that the Isle of Man has a Financial Services Ombudsman scheme which has a broader remit. This service is free and designed to handle consumer disputes in the areas of Insurance, Banking, Investment and Pensions from consumers of Isle of Man regulated businesses from around the World.

To pursue a complaint, the complainant must first have formally taken the matter up with the institution concerned, and must contact the Ombudsman within 6 years of the act or omission taking place, or within 2 years of the date at which the act or omission came to the notice of the complainant.

Complaints where the act or omission occurred prior to April 20th 1999 do not fall under the scheme.

The scheme's adjudicator has the power to impose directions to remedy the position, and can make monetary awards of up to £100,000 in respect of an act or omission which occurred before 1st April 2012 or £150,000 if that act or omission occurrred on or after 1st April 2012.

CONCLUSION

Would I buy this savings plan myself, and recommend to others?
Never.

Disclaimer: This article is assumed to be accurate at the time of publishing, and represents the personal opinion of the author. If you wish to correct/contest any of the following, please do so in the comments below. I am open to correcting errors if any. All opinions are welcome.

​Read More
Investors S&P500 Index Review
Product Reviews, Saving Plans Reviews

Investors Trust S&P 500 Index Review

Investors Trust S&P 500 Index is arguably The Best Capital Protected Savings Plan in the market.

Investors Trust S&P 500 Index is a range of savings plans with ‘unlimited growth and downside protection’.

Although there are other capital protected savings plan providers in the UAE, Investors Trust is the only licensed savings plan provider out of them.

If you need a savings plan with capital protection, the Investors Trust S&P 500 Index is arguably the best option out there.

It allows you to invest and participate in the full growth of the S&P 500 (as recommended by Warren Buffett), with downside protection.

Have a question? Feel free to Ask Your Question Here.

I am personally using the 15-year savings plan to save for my daughter’s college education fees. If you are looking for the 'Cheapest and Best performing savings plan in the UAE, Click here'.

Minimum Contributions & Investment Terms

  • Minimum Contributions - USD 200 per month / USD 2,400 per year
  • Investors Trust S&P 500 Index Savings Plan offers the following terms - 10, 15, and 20 years.

Capital Protection

The Investors Trust S&P 500 Index Savings Plan is ‘Capital Protected’. 

  • The 10-year version provides a minimum guarantee of 100% of the capital invested or the actual market value of the S&P 500, which ever is higher.
  • The 15-year version provides a minimum guarantee of 140% of the capital invested or the actual market value of the S&P 500, which ever is higher.
  • The 20-year version provides a minimum guarantee of 160% of the capital invested or the actual market value of the S&P 500, which ever is higher.

Investment Options (Where the money can be invested)

The Investors Trust S&P 500 Index Savings Plan only invests in the S&P 500. There are no other investment options.

Consistently buy an S&P 500 low-cost index fund - Warren Buffett.
  • Widely regarded as the best single gauge in the U.S. equities market, this world-renowned index includes a representative sample of 500 companies in the leading industries of the U.S. The S&P 500 focuses on the large-cap segment of the market, with over 80% coverage of U.S. equities, but it is also an ideal proxy for the total market.
  • The history of the S&P 500 dates back to 1923, when Standard and Poor’s introduced an index covering 233 companies. The Index, as it is known today, was introduced in 1957 when it expanded to include 500 companies.

top companies by weight

Company
GICS Sector 
Apple Inc.
Information Technology
Microsoft Corp
Information Technology
Amazon Inc
Consumer Discretionary
Facebook Inc
Information Technology
Exxon Mobil Corp
Energy
Johnson & Johnson
Health Care
Berkshire Hathaway B
Financials
JP Morgan Chase & Co
Financials
Alphabet Inc A
Information Technology
Alphabet Inc C
Information Technology

Charges

Annual Administration Charge

  • 2% p.a. (10-year version)
  • 1.7% p.a. (15-year version)
  • 1.1% p.a. (20-year version)

Bid/Offer Spread - Nil

Policy Fee - USD 10 Monthly

Structure Fee - 0.125% monthly of fund balance

What you would end up with if:

  • You save - USD 1,000 per month, for 15 years,
  • You paid - USD 180,000 in 15 years,
  • You get at the end of the term - USD 291,075 with an assumed growth rate of 8% (net of charges).

What an actual quote looks like:

Click on the images below to magnify them. 

Investors Trust SP500 page_1
Investors Trust SP500 page_2

Actual Performance of S&P 500 Index (over last 13 years):

Click on the images below to magnify them.

S&P15Yr-Actual-Performance_page_1
S&P15Yr-Actual-Performance_page_2
S&P15Yr-Actual-Performance_page_3
S&P15Yr-Actual-Performance_page_4
S&P15Yr-Actual-Performance_page_5
S&P15Yr-Actual-Performance_page_6

Jurisdiction - (Where your money is held)

Investors Trust Assurance SPC (“ITA”) is an international insurance company licensed and regulated by the Cayman Islands Monetary Authority.

The Cayman Islands is an Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom recognized as the world’s sixth largest international banking centre and one of the top 10 international financial centres in the world, with over 40 of the top 50 banks holding licenses here. 

Regulated banks in the Cayman Islands represent some 45 countries from around the world. This global representation proves that the Cayman Islands is widely acknowledged as one of the leading offshore financial centres.

While the financial services chapter of the Cayman Islands dates back 40 years, the seeds of it were sown as early as the 1700s. Two important legacies of history remain from that era – English common law and tax neutrality (The Cayman Islands has never had a system of direct taxation and instead employs an indirect, consumption-based taxation system). The Cayman Islands has always been an open, free market economy, and from the 1960s onwards, successfully invested its “historic capital” to the benefit of the financial services sector.

Cayman Islands is a British Offshore Territory, just like the Isle of Man and Guernsey, which are the base for Zurich International Life, Friends Provident International, Generali International, etc…

Investors Trust uses Merrill Lynch Bank of America as its custodian, and keeps client’s money in a ‘Trust’ account that is isolated from the liabilities of the Bank, or Investors Trust itself.

Which means - even if both the bank and Investors Trust were to go bankrupt, the client’s money is safe.

CONCLUSION

Would I buy this savings plan myself, and recommend to others?
Yes

Disclaimer: This article is assumed to be accurate at the time of publishing, and represents the personal opinion of the author. If you wish to correct/contest any of the following, please do so in the comments below. I am open to correcting errors if any. All opinions are welcome.

​Read More
Investors Trust Evolution Review
Product Reviews, Saving Plans Reviews

Investors Trust Evolution Review

Investors Trust Evolution is The Lowest Cost Savings Plan in the market.

Although there are many providers of savings plans in the UAE, Investors Trust Evolution savings plans shine apart from them.

Investors Trust call their Evolution range of savings plans - ‘the new generation of savings plans’. 

If you are trying to invest money in a regular savings plan, the Investors Trust Evolution Savings Plan, is the cheapest and best performing (because of low-cost ETF investment options) savings plan in the market.

Minimum Contributions & Investment Terms 

  • Minimum Contributions - USD 100 per month / USD 1,200 per year
  • The Evolution Savings Plan offers the following terms - 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years.
  • I don’t recommend savings plan terms longer than 5 years, unless the savings plans offer capital and/or returns guarantees.

Capital Protection

Investment Options (Where the money can be invested)

  • The Evolution Savings Plan offers around 150 investment funds including 17 Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs), apart from mutual funds to choose from.
  • Some of the fund managers include - Alliance Bernstein, BlackRock, Fidelity, Franklin Templeton, GAM, Henderson, Investec, iShares, Invesco, Man Investments, MFS International, Morgan Stanley, Pictet International, PIMCO, Schroders, etc…
  • Warren Buffet recommends investing in low cost index-funds. The Evolution Savings Plan offers 17 low-cost iShares ETFs which allow you to invest in various index funds with very low costs.
  Some of the ETFs offered have annual charges as low as 0.1% per annum.

Charges

  • Annual Administration Charge - 1.9% p.a. from years 1 - 10, and 0.35% p.a. from years 11 through the Term of Plan.
  • Bid/Offer Spread - Nil
  • Policy Fee - USD/EUR 7.00 (GBP 4.5) Monthly
  • Asset Management Fee - 0.125% monthly of fund balance
  • The Investors Trust Evolution savings plan offers bonuses and enhanced allocations, based on the total amount of annual premium paid. Personally I consider this a marketing gimmick.
Having said that, the Evolution savings plan is still the cheapest 5-year savings plan in the market.

The simplest way to understand charges is to see what you would end up with - at a certain level of monthly contribution, and assumed growth rate, and net of all product charges. See the section below.

What you would end up with if:

  • You save - USD 1,000 per month, for 5 years,
  • You paid - USD 60,000 in 5 years,
  • You get at the end of the term - USD 73,169 with an assumed growth rate of 8% (net of charges).

What an actual quote looks like:

Click on the images below to magnify them.

Evolution 5Y 1000P Page-1
Evolution 5Y 1000P Page_2

Jurisdiction - (Where client's money is held)

Investors Trust Assurance SPC (“ITA”) is an international insurance company licensed and regulated by the Cayman Islands Monetary Authority.

The Cayman Islands is an Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom recognized as the world’s sixth largest international banking centre and one of the top 10 international financial centres in the world, with over 40 of the top 50 banks holding licenses here. 

Regulated banks in the Cayman Islands represent some 45 countries from around the world. This global representation proves that the Cayman Islands is widely acknowledged as one of the leading offshore financial centres.

While the financial services chapter of the Cayman Islands dates back 40 years, the seeds of it were sown as early as the 1700s. Two important legacies of history remain from that era – English common law and tax neutrality (The Cayman Islands has never had a system of direct taxation and instead employs an indirect, consumption-based taxation system). The Cayman Islands has always been an open, free market economy, and from the 1960s onwards, successfully invested its “historic capital” to the benefit of the financial services sector.

Cayman Islands is a British Offshore Territory, just like the Isle of Man and Guernsey, which are the base for Zurich International Life, Friends Provident International, Generali International, etc…

Investors Trust uses Merrill Lynch Bank of America or other secure and large custodians globally, and keeps client’s money in a ‘Trust’ account that is isolated from the liabilities of the Bank, or Investors Trust itself.

Which means - even if both the bank and Investors Trust were to go bankrupt, the client’s money is safe.


CONCLUSION

Would I buy this savings plan myself, and recommend to others?
Yes

Disclaimer: This article is assumed to be accurate at the time of publishing, and represents the personal opinion of the author. If you wish to correct/contest any of the following, please do so in the comments below. I am open to correcting errors if any. All opinions are welcome.

​Read More